04 November 2013 Lessons the Hard Way: Conservation Experiments with Black Bears Posted by: Chris Haney | 2 comments | Share: Along the floodplains where the White River of Arkansas meets the mighty Mississippi, lies one of the largest tracts of bottomland hardwood forests remaining anywhere in North America. Here the fertile forests, three hundred lakes, plus various streams, sloughs, and bayous make up the spectacular 160,000-acre White River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). In historical times, this region was also home to a thriving population of black bear (Ursus americanus), but by the 1940s the population had dwindled to only about 25 isolated animals. With protection on the refuge, however, the population rebounded, so much so that by the 1990s biologists estimated as many as 400 bears were living inside and adjacent to the refuge. Black bear The bear’s rebound was so convincing that wildlife managers supposed they now had a surplus. Some of this surplus was used to establish another subpopulation of bears by moving bears (mostly females) down to Felsenthal NWR in southern Arkansas – a process called translocation. Because bears from White River NWR often wandered outside the refuge boundaries, raiding crops and chicken coops, in 2001 the state opened a hunting quota outside the refuge with the aim of reducing landowner complaints. But optimism over the White River bears was premature, if not entirely misplaced. Translocating bears for conservation, combined with the quota used in the hunt, caused the White River bear population to decline substantially. By 2007, scientists studying White River bears discovered that hunting caused an even greater proportional decline than had the translocations. Translocation and hunting were taking more females than males, so the population had become reproductively unbalanced. Because of their much smaller home ranges, female bears were far more vulnerable to capture AND to hunting. What lessons can we learn from the White River bears? Sometimes our attempts at conservation go awry. No doubt resource officials had good intentions in trans-locating the bears, and trying to foster more social tolerance for this large carnivore by reducing conflicts. Yet this recovering population could not withstand both sources of removal at the same time. White River bears first show us how vital it is to have spatial buffers around otherwise isolated protected areas. And secondly, the bears demonstrate to us that it is not a wise idea to re-initiate a hunting regimen before a population has truly recovered. Sufficiently large population buffers are necessary before any removals are undertaken, whatever the reason. Conservation experiments like this one still should be attempted if we can learn quickly and adapt. In this instance, science luckily gave us an early-warning signal that the management and conservation goals implemented for White River black bears could not yet be reconciled. Let’s hope that all species are fortunate in getting timely feedback from conservation research. Chris Haney, Ph.D. is Defenders’ Chief Scientist 2 Responses to “Lessons the Hard Way: Conservation Experiments with Black Bears” belen ordoñez November 4th, 2013 LA NATRUALEZA DEVE SER PRESERVADA POR EL HOMBRE Y RSPETADA EN TODO SU SER CADA VEZ MASSS PUESTO CADA DIA HAY MENOS DE NATURAL DE AUTENTICOOO DE QUE NOS VALE EL DINEROS SIN UNA TIERRA DIGNAAA ES LA VERDADERA CASA DEL HOBRE EL GLOBO TERRAQUEO Y SU VIDA ANIMAL SU CULTRUAAA LA MATAMOSSS LA ASESINAMOSSS LA DESTRUIMOSSS A PASOSO AGIGANTADOSSS NOS DESTRUIMOSSS TODOSSS CADA DIA MASSS Y MASSS Y MASSSS DESTRUCCCIONNN Reply Miranda November 5th, 2013 hope these lessons learnt will help all species. the government should read this and consider the wolves! people just do not appreciate how vital ALL species are to OUR healthy survival. they just do not “get it”! the only see themselves as an isolated human, with absolutely no connection to our natural surroundings. very sad! Reply Post Your Comment Click here to cancel reply. Name (required) Mail (required) (will not be published) You May also be interested in Wolf Weekly Wrap Up Fish and Wildlife Service Holds Public Meetings to Determine Fate of Mexican Gray Wolves; Six Mexican Gray Wolves Released in New Mexico; How Do People Form Their Opinions About Wolves? A Field Day with Gopher Tortoises Our Florida staff members spent a field day at Boyd Hill Nature Preserve to learn more about the reproductive and burrowing habits of gopher tortoises. Wolves are even more socially complex than we thought… In order to survive, wolves form cooperative groups known as packs, and these pack members hunt together, rear pups together, and compete against other wolf packs for food and territory.